Moshe Szweizer and Rivka Schlagbaum

Articles


Physics against Biology
The Theory of Natural Selection contradicts basic laws of Physics. To Physics 'Natural' processes result in Entropy increase, therefore the improvement of species can not be Natural.
Entropy

The theory of natural selection is contrary to basic laws of physics.

This article is about an error in science. Such errors happen every now and then, and with time get corrected. For some reason this particular one needs to be addressed yet. The problem represents a leftover from nineteenth century, when scientists were braving parts of science which are well established by now.

During the first part of nineteenth century many physicists and engineers in Europe became involved in development of something called 'perpetum mobile'.
This term translates to 'permanently in motion', and the main idea behind it was to build a machine that would consume no energy but would perform some useful work. In fact a successful design would be of a machine that is constantly moving without consuming energy. Such construction would be 'permanently in motion'.

At that time the idea was well known, and the possibility of building such a machine expected by many. During those times Charles Darwin worked on his research projects. His interests were in biology, but also he was aware of the efforts undertaken by the physicists and the engineers in their respective areas of research.

Darwin published his works in 1858 and in 1859, presenting the theory of the Natural Selection, and the development of living species within its' light. His works being related to the field of biology did not seem to overlap with the research performed by the physicists. However, it could be expected that the notions entertained by the physicists may have entered into Darwin's work.

The theory of Natural Selection presented by Darwin, assumes that the species evolve into more advanced forms by adapting to the challenges presented by the environment. The strongest and the most advanced ones succeed in the evolutionary manner while the weakest died.

What Darwin assumed was a biological form of perpetum mobile. He took an isolated sample of objects (some species) and placed it under derogatory pressure. Subsequently, he assumed that the species would better itself by some form of internal modification. The problem with this approach is that he assumed the sample would generate energy (work) out of itself, that is become more advanced by internal modification.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, after the works of Darwin had already been published, the physicists developed the theory of thermodynamics. As part of this theory the 'second law of thermodynamics' was established. This law introduces the notion of Entropy, which is a measure of randomness of a system. There is a countless number of ways the second law of thermodynamics may be presented, some of them are:

  • Any process within an isolated system results in the increase of entropy
  • In order to decrease entropy of a system, an external agent has to exert work on it
  • The perpetum mobile is impossible to be built
  • Things left to their own devices would deteriorate with time
  • A banana left unattended would rot with time
  • Children left alone will stop doing their homework
  • Charles Darwin was mistaken
  • Cars brake down and need to be constantly fixed

etc, etc.

Physics has ignored claims of biologists and concentrated her efforts on issues related to fundamental laws. At the same time one needs to remember that the laws of Physics are the most principal of all natural laws and if they are in disagreement with any other field of study then this field is certainly in error.

In case of natural selection theory, it contradicts the second law of thermodynamics which has been proven to be valid beyond any possible doubt.
 
Computer Science and Biology
It is difficult not to note similarity between DNA structure and compiled software image as present in computer memory.
Here are some points to consider:

Linearity
DNA is a linear representation of information.
Software compiled and stored in computer memory is also linearly represented.

Base 4 and base 2 representations
DNA is assembled from a combination of four amino acids (ACTG). That makes it base 4 representation of information.
A computer program is a base 2 presentation, which consists of a sequence of zero and one states.
Different bases but the same concept.

Genes are like compiled classes
A gene constitutes a blueprint used to generate phenotype.
Compiled class stored in computer memory is used to create objects.

Both are stored as blocks of code
Gene information is stored as well defined blocks of amino acid pairs.
In computer memory, compiled classes are stored as blocks of code.

Decoding process
For gene to be expressed as phenotype, DNA is opened by enzymes and messenger RNA is created. This RNA copy is then decoded by a ribosome and assembled as protein.
In case of software, a class is read by operating system and a functional representation is created in form of an object instance. Therefore process leading to protein formation resembles computer object instances creation.

Internal gene and class influencing
Genes influence other genes' activation.
Software objects stored in memory activate other objects of the same program when needed. For example opening a window creates all buttons contained in it.

External gene and object influencing
Gene expressions are triggered by environmental pressures or demands.
Software objects are activated by users interacting with the program.

Coding and non-coding fragments
DNA consists of gene sequences interspaced with non-expressed DNA fragments.
Compiled software consists of class representations in the computer memory interspaced with non object oriented fragments of code.

Intros and unused memory fragments
Gene is physically interspaced with intros which are ignored when gene is decoded.
The actual state of an object in computer memory does not have to be continuous but may be interspaced with other code fragments or even unused memory parts.

Compilation
Software is first designed by a developer who writes code. Then the program is compiled and converted into machine language.

It would be most tempting to think of DNA as being firstly: designed and coded just like a software piece, and then compiled into physical representation expressed as DNA code.

In such case, as programmer is different in nature to the machine code, someone designing DNA could be non-DNA based.
 
Mathematics against Biology

It is a simple calculation to perform to estimate an upper limit of possible DNA material present on Earth throughout time.

When compared with the number of statistical combinations DNA amino acids can be arranged in, one may estimate upper limit on probability of DNA occurring as a random event.

This probability is exactly zero
Statistics

The following is a simple calculation intended to compare two numbers. The first one is the maximal amount of DNA present on Earth throughout the biological time, and the second is the amount of combinations DNA can be arranged in.

The purpose is to estimate the probability of DNA occurring as a natural phenomenon. We are going to present the calculation for bacterial DNA and for virus RNA/DNA so to make the case more convincing.

Total amount of DNA possible

We would like to overestimate the amount of DNA present on Earth. All numbers used in the following calculation are substantially larger than actually possible. This results in gross overestimation and therefore provide an upper limit on the number of DNA molecules possible.

Bacterium
(Notation: 10E-6 means 10 to power minus 6 etc.)


Let us take a common bacterium E. Coli.
Bacterium length 1 micrometer = 0.000001 meters = 10E-6 meters
Assuming cubic volume:
Cell Volume = 10E-18 meters cubed
How many would fit into Earths' atmosphere if all space was filled with them from the bottom of the ocean to the stratosphere?
Earth radius 6,378,000 meters
Stratosphere 50,000 meters
Atmosphere volume = 4 * Pi * R * R * height = 2 * 10E19 meters cubed
To find number of cells filling the entire space above Earth we need to divide Atmosphere volume by volume of each cell:
All Atmosphere filled with bacteria = 2 * 10E19 / 10E-18 = 2*10E37

Division speed

Typical bacteria divides after one hour. This allows for estimation of number of cell throughout the time.
Time for cell division = 1 hour
Age of Earth (4 Billion Years) in hours = 4000000000 years * 365 days * 24 hours = 3.5*E13 hours


Total Number of cell in all time= Number of Hours * All filling the entire available space = 3.5E13 * 2.5E37 = 8.95 * E50 cells

In the above calculation we assumed that every one of the divisions results in a different DNA structure (gross overestimation as in reality only 1 per one hundred million cells differ)
Thus we have arrived with an overestimated number of cellular DNA present on Earth throughout the time. We assumed all space to be filled with bacteria throughout the time, and all this bacteria to contain uniquely different DNA.

Upper limit on number of bacterial DNA = 8.95 * E50 cells

DNA statistical combinations
Number of E. Coli DNA base pairs= 4,600,000
Each pair may be obtained in 4 combinations, therefore total number of possible DNA combinations is 4 to power 4600000.
To convert base 4 to decimal representation we need to multiply 4600000 by log(4) which is 0.602
Therefore total number of DNA combinations is 10 to power 2,769,476

Probability

Probability of one E. Coli bacterial DNA occurring as a statistical event = Number of Cells / Number of DNA combinations = 8.95 E50 / E2,769,476 = 1 / E2,769,425. That is 1 divided by 10 to power 2,769,425.
This probability is exactly zero


Repeating the same calculation but with small viruses

Virus hepadnavirus
The smallest DNA viruses are the hepadnaviruses such as Hepatitis B, at 3200 base pairs and 42nm in length.
Smallest hepadnaviruses of about 42 nanometers in length = 4.2E-8 meters
Repeating calculation performed for bacteria but replacing bacteria size with virus size (42 nanometers) gives:
Total Number of viruses in all time = 1.2E55 This is about one hundred thousand times more DNA material.

DNA statistical combinations
Virus Base Pairs 3200
Total number of DNA combinations is ten to power 1,927

Probability

Probability of one hepadnavirus DNA occurring as a statistical event = Number of viruses / Number of DNA combinations = 1.2E55 / E1927 = 1 / E1872 . That is 1 divided by 10 to power 1872
This probability is exactly zero
Moshe Szweizer and Rivka Schlagbaum COPYRIGHT 2011. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.